Biogeographical Classification Of India Essay Topics

Biogeographical classification of India

India has different climate and topography in different parts and hence is termed as a mega diversity country. India occupies 10th place among plant rich countries of the world. It is essential to acquire knowledge about the distribution and environmental interaction of flora and fauna of India.
Biogeographers have classified India into ten biogeographic zones with each zone having characteristic climate, soil and biodiversity. These zones are described below:
  1. Trans-Himaylayas The trans-himalayas is an extension to the Tibetean plateau. This region harbors the high-altitude cold desert in ladakh (Jammu and Kashmir) and Lahaul Spiti (Himachal Pradesh). It accounts for 5.7% of the country's landmass.
  2. Himayalas The Himalayas are the northern boundaries of India. The entire mountain chain is running from Kashmir in the North-west to Assam in the north-east. The Himalayas comprise of a diverse range of biotic provinces and biomes. The himalayas cover 7.2% of the country's landmass
  3. Desert  The extremely dry area west of the Aravalli hill range, is comprising both  the salty desert of Gujarat and the sandy desert of Rajasthan. Deserts occupy around 6.9% of the country's land mass. The kinds of deserts found in India are:
    1. The desert of western Rajasthan
    2. The desert ofGujarat
    3. The high-altitude cold desert of Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. The Indian deserts have more diversified fauna.
  4. Semi-arid This zone lies between the desert and the Deccan plateau. It includes the Aravalli hill range. It overs approximately 15.6% of the country's landmass.
  5. Western Ghats The western ghats are a mountain range that runs along the western cost of India. They are a range extending north-south from southern tip of Gujarat in the north to Kanyakumari in the south.The mountains cover an area of about 160,000 sq. km. This ghat section covers an extremely diverse range of biotic provinces and biomes. It covers about 5.8% of the country's landmass.
  6. Deccan plateau It is a large triangular plateau south of the Narmada valley. Three sides of the plateau are covered by mountains slopes towards east. Satpura mountains cover the north while western ghats cover the west side and eastern ghats cover the eastern side of the plateau. It is the one of largest zones covering the southern and south-central plateau with mostly deciduous trees. It covers 4.3% of the country's land mass.
  7. Gangetic  plain This plain covers the area between the south himalayas to the tropic of cancer. These plains were formed by the Ganges river system and are relatively homogeneous. This region experience 600  mm rainfall annually. Sunderbans forests are located in this region and it covers 11% of the country's land mass.
  8. North-east India These are pains and non-himalayan ranges of northeastern India and have a wide variety of vegetation. It covers around 5.2% of the country's land mass.
  9. Islands The Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal has almost 300 big and small islands. Among these, only five islands are inhabited. Only tribes are found in the island of Nicobar. These islands have a highly diverse set of biomes and occupy 0.03% of the country's biomass.
  10. Coasts India has a large coastline distributed both to the east and west with distinct differences between the two. The Lakshwadeep islands are included in this but the area of these islands is negligible.

Biodiversity is fundamental to addressing some of the world’s greatest challenges such as climate change, sustainable development and food security. India is known for its rich biological diversity. The country has already documented over 91,000 species of animals and 46,000 species of plants in its ten bio-geographic regions.

India as a Mega Diverse Country

India is one of the 17 mega diverse countries classified by Conservation International. The mega diverse counties are the following:

  1. Australia
  2. Brazil
  3. China
  4. Colombia
  5. Democratic Republic of the Congo
  6. Ecuador
  7. India
  8. Indonesia
  9. Madagascar
  10. Malaysia
  11. Mexico
  12. Papua New Guinea
  13. Peru
  14. Philippines
  15. South Africa
  16. United States
  17. Venezuela

India is also recognised as one of the eight Vavilovian Centres of Origin and Diversity of Crop Plants. Nearly 65,000 native plants are still used prominently in indigenous health care systems. Here we have more than 300 wild ancestors and close relatives of cultivated plants still growing and evolving under natural conditions.

Ten Biogeographic Zones in India

There are 10 biogeographic zones in India. They are the following:

  1. Trans Himalayan zone.
  2. Himalayan zone.
  3. Desert zone.
  4. Semiarid zone.
  5. Western ghat zone.
  6. Deccan platea zone.
  7. Gangetic plain zone.
  8. North east zone.
  9. Coastal zone.
  10. Islands present near the shore line.

Critically Endangered Animal Species of India

Click to explore the list of critically endangered animal species of India.

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