This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.
Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr
Last Edited: 2018-03-09 12:49:13
General Model for Citing Web Sources in Chicago Style
Titles for Websites, Blogs, and Social Media: The title of a website that is analogous to a traditionally printed work but does not have (and never had) a printed counterpart can be treated like titles of other websites. For example, Wikipedia can be treated as a website, rather than as a conventional encyclopedia. This is a departure from previous editions of CMOS.
Titles of websites should follow headline-style capitalization and are usually set in roman. There are, however, some exceptions: titles of blogs are set in italics and titles of books, journals, television shows, movies, and other types of works should be treated the same whether cited as a print version or an online version. For example, when citing the website of the television news station CNN, the title maintains italics. Furthermore, in cases such as this, when a website does not have a distinctive title, it can be cited based on the entity responsible for the website, for instance, CNN online.
Footnote or Endnote (N):
1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Web Page,” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Roman, publication date and/or access date if available, URL.
Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):
Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Web Page.” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Roman. Publication date and/or access date if available. URL.
Electronic Books and Books Consulted Online
Electronic books are cited exactly as their print counterparts with the addition of a media marker at the end of the citation: Kindle edition, PDF e-book, Microsoft Reader e-book, Palm e-book, CD-ROM, etc. Books consulted online are also cited exactly as their print counterparts with the addition of a DOI (or URL) at the end of the citation. See also Books.
Note: Stable page numbers are not always available in electronic formats; therefore, you may include the number of chapter, section, or other easily recognizable locator instead.
Weston, Anthony. A Rulebook for Arguments, Fourth ed. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2010. Kindle edition.
1. Donald Davidson, Essays on Actions and Events (Oxford: Clarendon, 2001), https://bibliotecamathom.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/essays-on-actions-and-events.pdf.
Davidson, Donald, Essays on Actions and Events. Oxford: Clarendon, 2001. https://bibliotecamathom.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/essays-on-actions-and-events.pdf
Online Periodicals (Journal, Magazine, and Newspaper Articles)
Online periodicals are cited exactly as their print counterparts with the addition of a DOI or URL at the end of the citation. See also Periodicals. Also keep in mind that while access dates are not required for formally published electronic sources (journal articles), they can be useful for informally published electronic sources or may be required for by some disciplines for all informally and formally published electronic sources. Access dates should be located immediately prior to the DOI or URL.
For four or more authors (in a book), list the first author in the note followed by et al. For the corresponding bibliographic entry, list all authors (up to 10).
1. Kirsi Peltonen et al. “Parental Violence and Adolescent Mental Health,” European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 19, no. 11 (2010): 813-822, doi: 10.1007/s00787-010-0130-8.
Peltonen, Kirsi, Noora Ellonen, Helmer B. Larsen, and Karin Helweg-Larsen. “Parental Violence and Adolescent Mental Health.” European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 19, no. 11 (2010): 813-822. doi: 10.1007/s00787-010-0130-8.
Web Page with Known Author and Date
7. Richard G. Heck, Jr., “About the Philosophical Gourmet Report” last modified August 5, 2016. http://rgheck.frege.org/philosophy/aboutpgr.php
Heck, Jr., Richard G. “About the Philosophical Gourmet Report” last modified August 5, 2016. http://rgheck.frege.org/philosophy/aboutpgr.php
Web Page with Known Date but without Known Author
8. “Illinois Governor Wants to 'Fumigate' State's Government,” CNN online, last modified January 30, 2009, http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/01/30/illinois.governor.quinn/.
"Illinois Governor Wants to 'Fumigate' State's Government.” CNN online. Last modified January 30, 2009. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/01/30/illinois.governor.quinn/.
Web Page with Unknown Publication Date and Author
9. “Band,” Casa de Calexico, accessed October 27, 2017. http://www.casadecalexico.com/band.
“Band.” Casa de Calexico. Accessed October 27, 2017. http://www.casadecalexico.com/band.
Blog titles should be set in italics and blog entries should be set in quotation marks. Generally, blog entries and comments are cited only as notes. If you frequently cite a blog, however, then you may choose to include it in your bibliography. Note: if the word “blog” is included in the title of the blog, there is no need to repeat it in parentheses after that title.
1. J. Robert Lennon, “How Do You Revise?,” Ward Six (blog), September 16, 2010 (8:39 a.m.), http://wardsix.blogspot.com/2010/09/how-do-you-revise.html.
2. Susan Woodring, September 17, 2010 (3:40 a.m.), comment on J. Robert Lennon, “How Do You Revise?,” Ward Six (blog), September 16, 2010 (8:39 a.m.), http://wardsix.blogspot.com/2010/09/how-do-you-revise.html.
Note: If the word “podcast” is included in the title of the podcast, there is no need to repeat it enclosed in commas after that title. “Podcast audio” is used below, then, as an example placeholder and would not necessarily be required for this specific example.
1. Sean Cole and Ira Glass, “622: Who You Gonna Call?,” August 4, 2017, in This American Life, produced by WBEZ, podcast, MP3 audio,1:00:27, accessed October 31, 2017, https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/622/who-you-gonna-call.
Cole, Sean and Ira Glass. “622: Who You Gonna Call?.” Produced by WBEZ. This American Life. August 4, 2017. Podcast, MP3 audio,1:00:27. accessed October 31, 2017. https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/622/who-you-gonna-call.
Blank Form for Online Multimedia
1. Firstname Lastname of Performer, Writer or Creator, Title of Text, indication of format/medium, running time, publication date, URL.
Lastname, Firstname of Performer, Writer or Creator. Title of Text. Indication of Medium, Running Time. Publication Date. URL.
Please consult our recommendations below for citing research materials from the US Holocaust Memorial Museum, including content on this website. Check with your teacher or professor for the specific formatting requirements of your institution.
From the Museum's Website
To cite text from the Museum’s website and help others find it in the future, provide the:
- Author (if a particular person is not attributed, list the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum as the author)
- Title of the article
- Title of the webpage
- URL of the webpage
- Date you accessed the information
To cite this article from the Museum’s Holocaust Encyclopedia, use:
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. “Introduction to the Holocaust.” Holocaust Encyclopedia. www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005143. Accessed on [date].
To cite this article from a Museum collections highlight, use:
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. “A Forgotten Suitcase: The Mantello Rescue Mission.” Collections Highlights. www.ushmm.org/research/research-in-collections/collections-highlights/mantello-rescue-mission. Accessed on [date].
To cite a photograph from the Museum’s website or online databases, provide the:
- Image title
- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archives #[number] (if applicable)
- Courtesy of [name] (if applicable)
- Copyright of [name] (if applicable)
To cite this photo from the Museum’s photo archives database, use:
Portrait of diplomatic rescuer George Mandel-Mantello. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archives #45670. Courtesy of Eric Saul. Copyright of United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
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From the Museum's Archival Materials
The Museum’s Collection consists of unpublished materials, collected from a variety of sources and in different formats, which are assigned accession (Acc.) numbers. Surrogate materials (duplicates) acquired from repositories around the world are also assigned record groups (RGs). It’s important to capture the key information that will enable you and other researchers to locate these materials in the future.
Consult collection finding aids and use preferred citation whenever provided. See basic templates and examples below for guidance when a preferred citation is not provided.
Name of collection, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Archives, Washington, DC.
Identification of item, Name of collection, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Archives, Washington, DC.
RG‐15.104M, Centralny Komitet Żydów Polskich (CKŻP). Wydział Repatriacji z ZSRR: Central Committee of Jews in Poland. Repatriation Department from USSR, 1945‐1950. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Archives,Washington, DC.
Bagriansky family papers. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Archives, Washington, DC.
File 271/1/572, Reel 26, RG-31.013M, Ivano-Frankivsk State Oblast Archives Records, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Archives, Washington, DC.
Writings, circa 1987-1993: Die grosse Aktion (Kaunas, 28 October 1941), (Box 1/folder 14), Bagriansky family papers, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Archives, Washington, DC.
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From the Museum's Library Materials
There are several accepted ways to cite materials in a bibliography or on a works-cited page, and styles are constantly evolving. Many history professors prefer students use The Chicago Manual of Style, while high school teachers and other professors often allow the use of Turabian. Certain disciplines in the humanities encourage the use of the MLA Style Manual for graduate students and academics or the MLA Handbook for high school and undergraduates. Ask your teacher or professor which style guide or edition is preferred by your school or institution. Common style guides include:
- The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014. Find in a library near you.
- Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd edition. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 2008. Find in a library near you.
- Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 8th edition. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2016. Find in a library near you.
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2015. Find in a library near you.
- Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 8th edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013. Find in a library near you.
Guidance for citing sources using these styles can be found at the Research and Documentation Online website.
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From the International Tracing Service (ITS) Digital Collection
Citations of materials found within the digitized collections of the International Tracing Service, at the Museum or any of the other repositories, should comprise document-specific information, including the document title and the collection title as well as the archival tree number, the document ID, the name of the repository at which you accessed the material, and the date you accessed it.
To cite material in a footnote or endnote, use:
[Title of document], [Archival Sub-collection Number]/[Digital Document Number]/ITS Digital Archive. Accessed at [repository] on [date].
Report on Conferences on Unaccompanied Children, 1946, 6.1.2/82489042/ITS Digital Archive. Accessed at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum on [date].
Häftlingspersonalbogen Jakob Abelsohn, Dachau, 126.96.36.199/9956912/ITS Digital Archive. Accessed at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum on [date].
To cite material within a bibliography, use:
Sub-collection [Archival Sub-collection Number]: [Archival Sub-collection Title], ITS Digital Archive. Accessed at [repository] on [date].
Sub-collection 188.8.131.52: Individuelle Unterlagen Männer Buchenwald, ITS Digital Archive. Accessed at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum on [date].
To cite materials used in exhibitions, adhere to your own institution-specific guidelines for captions and include:
[Digital Document Number] © ITS Bad Arolsen
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From the Shoah Foundation
For citations of digitized oral history testimony found through the Shoah Foundation interface, use:
Interviewee’s last name, interviewee’s first name. Interview [interview-code]. Visual History Archive. USC Shoah Foundation Institute. Accessed online at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum on [date].
Limor, Elizabeth. Interview 16506. Visual History Archive. USC Shoah Foundation Institute. Accessed online at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum on [date].
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