The Entomological Collection, which includes all groups of insects from all parts of the world, with over 450.000 specimens, is one of the richest and museologically best processed collections at Natural History Museum. Since the establishment in 1895, although at uneven rate, the collection is steadily increasing, primarily due to curators’ activities but also due to donations of entomologists both from this country and from abroad. There is also the precious contribution by numerous friends who took various journeys. Although these are usually just single insects, they are often from exotic regions. The whole fund includes 51 collections: General collection of insects, Collection of insects by Petar Novak, Collection of insects by Institute for Conservation of Plants, the Historical collection of Odonata, Collection of Odonata by Živko Adamović, General collection of Odonata, General collection of Orthoptera, Collection of Orthoptera by Borivoj Lazarević, Collection of Homoptera, Collection of Homoptera: Auchenorhyncha by Ljubodrag Janković, Initial collection of Heteroptera, Collection of Heteroptera by Nikola Kormiljev, the Study collection of Heteroptera, Collection of Heteroptera on cultivated plants, Collection of Thysanoptera on cultivated plants, Study collection of Thysanoptera, Donated Collection of Thysanoptera by Gabor Jenser, Collection of Thysanoptera by Richard zur Strassen, Collection of Neuroptera, Collection of Coleoptera by Nedeljko Košanin, General collection of Coleoptera, Collection of Coleoptera: Cicindelidae, Collection of Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Collection of Coleoptera: Scarabeidae, Collection of Coleoptera by Ljubodrag Janković, Collection of Coleoptera from the vicinity of Skopje by S. Vojinović, Collection of Coleoptera by Stjepan Svirčev, Collection of Coleoptera by Jovan Stančić, Collection of Coleoptera by Guido Nonveiller, Collection of Lepidoptera by Miloš Rogulja, General collection of Rhopalocera, Collection of Rhopalocera from Durmitor by Predrag Jakšić, General collection of Heterocera, Collection of butterflies by Archibald Reiss, Collection of butterflies by Boško Salamon, Collection of butterflies by Ivo Toševski, Collection of butterflies of India by Andraš Galac, Collection of African butterflies, Collection of butterflies of South America, Collection of Diptera, Collection of Diptera : Tipuloidea, Collection of Diptera: Asilidae, Collection of Diptera: Syrphidae by Slobodan Glumac, Collection of Diptera: Syrphidae by Smiljka Šimić and Ante Vujić, Collection of Diptera: Tachinidae by Pelagija Sisojević, Collection of Diptera: Nycteribia, bat parasites, General collection of Hymenoptera, General collection of Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Collection of Hymenoptera: Apidae by Simeun Grozdanić, Collection of Hymenoptera: Apidae by Živomir Vasić, Collection of Hymenoptera: Apoidea by Zoran Mučalica, Herbarium cecidologicum by Duška Simova. The oldest specimens are from the second half of XIX century, while the Collection of Coleoptera by Nedeljko Košanin is one of the oldest. The greatest number of specimens is in the Collections of: dragonflies (Odonata), grasshoppers (Orthoptera), crickets (Homoptera), heteropterans (Heteroptera), thrips (Thysanoptera), flies (Diptera), butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera), beetles (Coleoptera) and hymenopterans (Hymenoptera). The entomological boxes are used to store the specimens of thousands of species, from those known to everybody to the particularly rare ones which would be welcomed into their collection by every museum in the world. The Entomological Collection of Natural History Museum is therefore indispensable for knowing the history of studies on insects and their diversity in the area of Serbia and Balkans. It would be impossible to perform any serious research and studies in fields of taxonomy, faunistics, ecology, biogeography and conservation of insects without the data from Entomological collection of Natural History Museum. Specimens from other continents: Africa, Asia and South America, are particularly interesting for needs of exhibitions.