Dissertation Geo Second The Motion

Post by Jonathon Clark, 3rd Year BSc Geography

The second semester of my second year saw the onset of what all geography undergraduates regard with terror, mystique and possibly a touch of (occasionally) misguided optimism: the Dissertation.

Initially, I felt secure – buoyant amongst a cohort of geography students in the same sea of chaos. The BA-inclined were all scrambling to draw up questionnaires for unsuspecting members of the public. The eager physical scientists in the making immersed in geological maps, ready to snap the perfect Facebook profile picture of them standing triumphantly over a patch of ground they had cored, blasted with an XRF spectrometer and talked about in what could be their first pitch to the scientific community. However, I soon found myself falling behind in the race to have my proposal accepted. The deadline for the proposal loomed, drawing ever closer. My page was still blank. With a sense of impending castastrophe for not only my grades but also my pride, I questioned myself thoroughly. Have I suddenly fallen behind? Am I not as intelligent? Does my brain work differently? Is this the sign that maybe this whole thing isn’t for me? It got that dire.

My logic led me to think about what particular aspects of geography appeal most to me. I have never identified myself as purely a physical or human geographer. Rather, from the first geography lesson I sat in my A Level class, I recognised that geography holds a unique selling point over any other subject taught in academia. No, not its so often bragged about breadth and depth, or its great fieldtrips, but its ability as a discipline to be studied not only for the sole purpose of expanding knowledge of socio-economic trends or physical phenomena but also integrating this knowledge to provide solutions to problems which can affect hundreds of thousands of people, every single day. Great! But how can I translate this interest and passion into a feasible project to carry out in the field? I recognised there were several options open to me. Why not see how different rungs of society in Liverpool feel about climate change? Why not see if austerity is impacting wildlife preservation in the Sefton coast? How has political instability in the Middle East affected the renewable energy industry in Britain? It’s strange; looking back, all of these ideas were actually quite possible. Yet, at the time, in the stress of the moment, I felt like there was an overwhelming amount of scale and work involved in pursuing any of these avenues. It seemed I’d taken one step forwards and two steps back…

Hands up if you’re guilty of sometimes clicking delete loads of times to get through a large backlog of e-mails! I know I’ve done it. This particular day, however, I was lucky to not do this as I received an e-mail from Andy Plater regarding work placements available over summer, which could convert into work-based dissertations. I had heard about work-based dissertations in a lecture earlier in the year and dismissed it as a complicated, paperwork-laden option for completing my dissertation. This dismissal was reinforced by the naive belief I held at the time which led me to falsely trust I could come up with a piece of original research on the spot. One of the placements Andy talked about in the e-mail was at a social enterprise recycling company based in Huyton, called Elixir. I read on to learn about what would eventually become a significant part of my life.

Elixir was founded by Ben Donnelly as a company which employed ex-offenders, addicts and those who have been out of work for prolonged periods. At their plant, they recycle waste PVCu plastic from the construction industry. Through shredding and granulating it and then shipping it on to manufacturers, the PVCu is completely recycled with zero waste to landfill. The story of the company’s creation really struck a chord with me, and the nature of their environmental and social work appealed to me. Ben had contacted Andy as well as the Centre for Global Eco Innovation (CGE) – a venture run by the universities of Lancaster and Liverpool as well as the commercialisation firm Inventya. Based on the first floor of the Roxby, they normally deal with small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) who have an environmental focus to their work. The universities provide enable the companies to host dedicated graduate researchers and to gain access to research and development facilities to allow the companies to develop new economically sustainable or beneficial products. In the case of Elixir, no postgraduate student had been found at the time to quite suit the nature of the work they were undertaking; Elixir sought to expand from recycling just PVCu to also recycling other types of plastic waste, as well as potentially recycling electronic waste and looking into setting up a renewable energy project.

After a short but intense series of discussions regarding what work I would be undertaking during my internship and how it would produce an academic piece that would constitute a dissertation, the interested parties came to an agreement that I would assist Elixir in setting up a facility at their plant which could process waste LCD televisions and computer monitors. On the academic front, I would employ knowledge of ecosystems and environmental planning to produce an environmental impact assessment and life-cycle analysis of the waste screens.

It was a great relief to have other experienced people steer me in what I would write such a lengthy piece of work about. Through the assistance of Matt Fulton, the CGE project manager, the paperwork involved was minimal. Aside from the regular dissertation proposal I only needed complete some insurance documents and a learning agreement. I also quickly realised that I was gaining valuable experience in an industry closely related to my degree subject. Such experience is highly valued by graduate employers and gave me an edge over my peers who may have edged me out in the game of raw marks, chasing that elusive first class honours degree. It was reassuring.

The work itself was a combination of office duties, finance and business report tasks akin to an assistant managerial level and also some hands on work in the plant using machinery and working with the lads on the factory floor. It was insightful, educational, useful and, best of all, fun. Working in such a company let me network with key authoritative figures in UK recycling, energy and environmental bodies and companies. It also let me meet some amazing people who have come from the most horrendous backgrounds possible in this country and overcome challenges that cause you to reflect on how lucky you are to have family, friends, health, food and shelter. After 4 weeks of work over the summer, which culminated in a boardroom presentation to managing directors and investors, I was relieved to see my research and designs given approval and investment (after some minor adjustments – I can’t say I’m ashamed about not knowing what the difference between revenue and profit was, having never touched business studies in my life!). This paved the way for me to take a break from Elixir and use my rapidly approaching first semester of third year to focus on completing the academic element of my dissertation. The summary report and skills diary which compose one third of the work-based dissertation module were completed on the job – another huge benefit if you’re someone who is less academically inclined and more oriented towards reports and action plans as well as practical learning.

With the dissertation progressing smoothly, I was delighted to receive a call from Ben offering me part-time work for the remainder of my degree at the company. Spending a few hours a week at Elixir now allows me to manage the operation I tended to from its design stage right up to its present stage of operation. I can now call myself the proud Waste Electronic Development Manager of a company which is processing several tons of electronic waste per week, which would have otherwise contaminated landfill sites and ecosystems with the harmful mercury and lead contaminants such waste electronic goods contain. The added financial bonus to this work is also helping me pay for my final year fieldtrip to California. It’s truly a win-win situation.

Hopefully, this post has cast some light on how a work-based dissertation can be so advantageous to an undergraduate student. It’s no exaggeration to say that it shapes you personally as well as academically. Even if the added fun of this doesn’t interest you and you are dead set on logging pollen in samples from the hills of North Wales or the dissertation seems so far off, perhaps this has given you some insight into the highs and lows and mental battles that you can encounter as you enter the twilight of your degree. I hope to add to this post in the not-too-distant future, where I feel the experiences I have detailed here will help me take a leap into the world of work and benefit me even further.

Dream big and work hard.

By the way – I got a first (provisionally)!!

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Posted inCareers, Dissertation research, Fieldwork, Human Geography, Impact, Knowledge Transfer, Physical Geography, Research | Taggedcareers, dissertation, Geography, Recycling, undergraduate |
Astronomy - Basic Concepts - Retrograde Motion - Geocentric - Ptolemy - -  Scientific Revolution - Professor Robert A. Hatch
Dr Robert A. Hatch  -  University of Florida

The animated illustration above represents retrograde motion from a geocentric (earth - centered) perspective.  Here the earth is depicted in the center of a planetary orbit, for example Mars.  Because the earth is assumed to be fixed and stable in the center of the cosmos (geocentric and geostatic), and further, all heavenly bodies are assumed to move around the central earth, some device was needed to describe the apparent retrograde loop that planets make when in opposition to the sun.  To account for the apparent backward looping of the planet, Claudius Ptolemy (fl. 140 AD) devised a very elegant geometrical construction to describe this motion.  His model involved a large circle (deferent) and a second smaller circle (epicycle) on which the planet moved.  The result was that the planet moved with a double motion.  Specifically, the planet moved with uniform angular speed around the center of the epicycle, and in turn, the center of the epicycle moved with uniform angular speed around the equant point.  The equant point, by definition, was an imaginary point situated near the earth.  Its exact position varied from planet to planet.  In each case its location was determined by observation and calculation.  The result was a simple and accurate description of planetary motion.  But theory aside, what would you see?  Viewed from earth, the planet would appear to undergo a 'looping' retrograde motion against the backdrop of the 'fixed stars.'  To all appearances, the planet would move in its direct order, gradually slow down and finally appear to stop (stationary point one).  The planet would then appear to reverse its direction (undergo retrograde).  After reversing direction the planet would again slow down and appear to stop a second time (stationary point two).  Finally, the planet it would reverse direction a second time and continue to move its original direction.  In sum, from a geocentric perspective, retrograde motion was one of the major astronomical problems requiring attention in order to 'save the appearances.'  To this end, Ptolemy's model was unsurpassed for simplicity, accuracy, and elegance until Copernicus some 1400 years later.

But a footnote is perhaps in order.  Copernicus' cosmological contribution was not without a certain irony.  Celebrated for having put the earth in motion about the sun, Copernicus roundly rejected Ptolemy's equant point as inelegant and contrary to Plato's Dictum.  Driven by empirical evidence, Ptolemy was indeed forced to introduce the now infamous equant point and thereby abandon Plato's Dictum.  By tradition at least, Plato's Dictum held that planetary appearances were to be accounted for by means of uniform circular motion (or compounded uniform circular motion) around a central point.  Copernicus boldly followed tradition in rejecting Ptolemy on this point.  But the Copernican Achievement, at least in retrospect,  had a planetary down side.  To be sure, Copernicus' model explained away the 'sun-linked' motions of Mercury and Venus, just as it accounted for the periodic uniformities in each element of Ptolemy's model (one earth year).  And most importantly, for present purposes, the Copernican system explained away retrograde motion, it was not a real motion, Copernicus argued, but an illusion resulting from the very structure of the planetary system.  But less celebrated consequences were pointed out by later 'Copernicans' (notably Kepler and Boulliau).  While the specific model proposed by Nicolas Copernicus was ingenious from a cosmological perspective, it was quite useless in describing the more subtle motions of the 'elliptical way.'  Arguably (to end animated pedagogy with a scholarly suggestion) Copernicus represents a retrograde step for geometrical astronomy.

Here I wish to acknowledge my debt to J-B Delambre.  I have imitated his rhetorical flourishes, just for fun, but I have inverted most of his conclusions.  No offense is intended. Afterall, Jean-Baptiste needs no defense.  He was a brilliant historian and astronomer.  His Greek, however, was not so good as he sometimes hoped, his foot and meter not always so certain.  To compare his interpretations of Copernicus, Kepler, and Boulliau, See:  Histoire de l'astronomie moderne, T. 1-2 Paris 1821, reprint 1969 New York & London.


Copyright 1998  -  Dr Robert A. Hatch  -  All Rights Reserved

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